3.4): Overview of European Union countries, "Mixed village in Cyprus buffer zone looks to offer hope", German Wikipedia about Büsingen am Hochrhein, "CAMPIONE D'ITALIA - Italy in Switzerland ENCLAVES", Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic and the adjustments to the Treaties, Protocol 10 to the Treaty of Accession 2003, "COUNCIL DECISION of 10 June 2004 concerning the representation of the people of Cyprus in the European Parliament in case of a settlement of the Cyprus problem (2004/511/EC)", Protocol 3 to the Treaty of Accession 2003, "First Report on the implementation of the provisions of Protocol No 3 to the 2003 Act of Accession on the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus", "EURO ORDINANCE 2007 An Ordinance to provide for the adoption of the euro as legal tender in the Sovereign Base Areas and for related matters", "Declaration by Her Majesty's Government Regarding the Administration of the Sovereign Base Areas", Council Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 of 29 April 2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol No 10 of the Act of Accession, Council Regulation (EC) No 293/2005 of 17 February 2005 amending Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol 10 to the Act of Accession as regards agriculture and facilities for persons crossing the line, "The Saimaa Canal - Finnish Transport Agency", "Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Paris, 18 April 1951)", Annex IV: Overseas countries and territories, Treaty establishing the European Community (consolidated version) - Text of the Treaty, Protocol on the application of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community to the non European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Act ratifying the EAEC Treaty in the Netherlands, European Economic Community Treaty, Art 227, Norway and Iceland Schengen association agreement, Agreement on the European Economic Area - Protocol 40 on Svalbard, Declaration for activation of Protocol40 exclusion, "Moms på kjøp av tjenester fra Svalbard eller Jan Mayen", Council Decision of 29 May 2000 concerning the request of the United Kingdom, Council Decision of 22 December 2004 on the putting the request into effect, Consolidated version of the European Communities Act (1972–18) (Gib. The outermost regions office for support and information is located in these islands, in the city of Las Palmas on the island of Gran Canaria. The Commission is a statutory body corporate established by the Financial Services Commission Ordinance, 1989. Additionally in Europe there were special territories in the past that had different status than their "mainland", because of various reasons, but now are part of a member state. The OCTs have been explicitly invited by the EU treaty to join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA). Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Russian and Serbian are also used as liturgical languages, When Portugal became a Community member in 1986 East Timor was considered a. Summary for member states that do not have special-status territories, but do not participate in certain EU provisions as they are either not yet eligible or have an opt-out. , Because Cypriot nationality law extends to Cypriots in the Sovereign Base Areas, Cypriot residents, as citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, are entitled to EU citizenship.  They were listed in the Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which aside from inviting them to join OCTA, also provided them the opportunity to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment. On the other hand, since May 21, 2002, the UK has granted all Gibraltarians with British citizenship. Both comuni are part of the Lombardy region. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius: Inherited status as non-member from the Netherlands Antilles. The main reason for leaving is disagreements about the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and to regain control of Greenlandic fish resources to subsequently remain outside EU waters. Collectively, the special territories encompass a population of some 6.1 million people and a land area of about 2,733,792 square kilometres (1,055,500 sq mi). Villages in the buffer zone are legally administered by the Republic of Cyprus. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion are five French overseas regions (which are also overseas departments) which under French law are, for the most part, treated as integral parts of the Republic. Single Market states and their territories. EU law only applies fully to the part of the island that is effectively controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. EU law is suspended in the northern third of the island (the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognised only by Turkey) by article 1(1) of the Cyprus Protocol.  It concluded that the choice would be for the islands themselves to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of becoming part of the EU as outermost regions, and that nothing would be done absent the islands specifically requesting it. Zimbabwe and Hong Kong are not listed in the annex. Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory, ceded to the British Crown in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht following the Spanish War of Secession. The FSC can be accessed on. It is bordered by Spain to the north and the people of Gibraltar are ferociously loyal British citizens despite being bilingual in English and Spanish. But in 2016, nearly 96% of voters in Gibraltar backed staying in the EU, while in Britain proper the referendum vote was 52-48% in favour of leaving the bloc. , Six territories of the Netherlands—all of which are Caribbean islands—have OCT status. Cypriot nationality law extends to Northern Cyprus, meaning citizens of the Republic of Cyprus residing in Northern Cyprus are entitled to EU citizenship. A list of the remaining member states which do not have special-status territories, and participate in all EU provisions: Austria Belgium Estonia Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Slovakia Slovenia, Territories of EU member states which enjoy special status within or outside the European Union, Special member state territories and the European Union, Location of the European Union and the special territories, Overseas Countries and Territories Association, Non-EU countries with integration in the Single Market.  The UK also agreed in the Protocol to keep enough control of the external (i.e.  The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, which listed them as an outermost region. The effect of Brexit on Gibraltar is an important issue. 10 member state territories have ad hoc arrangements in their relationship with the EU. Some have become superfluous thanks to the Schengen Agreement. According to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, both primary and secondary European Union law applies automatically to these territories, with possible derogations to take account of their "structural social and economic situation (...) which is compounded by their remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate, economic dependence on a few products, the permanence and combination of which severely restrain their development".  As such, they benefit from being able to have their own export and import policy to and from the EU, while still having access to various EU funds (such as the European Development Fund). Two protocols to the Treaty of Accession 2003—numbers 3 and 10, known as the "Sovereign Base Areas Protocol" and the "Cyprus Protocol" respectively – reflect this complex situation. One of the French territories subsequently switched status from OMR to OCT (Saint Barthélemy), while another French territory switched from OCT to OMR (Mayotte). , Heligoland is an archipelago of Germany situated in the North Sea 70 km (43 mi) off the German north-western coast. The islands had a separate referendum on accession and like the Finnish mainland voted in favour. Should consumers based in Gibraltar have an issue with goods or services that they have purchased in another EU member state they can contact the UK European Consumer Centre. Finland leases the 19.6 kilometres (12.2 mi)-long Russian part of the Saimaa Canal from Russia and is granted extraterritoriality rights.  None of the islands use the euro as their currency. On 25 June 2008, a Cooperation Treaty between the EU and OCTA was signed in Brussels. Gibraltar was part of that agreement. In those special cases, VAT rules do not apply and they may also be exempt from customs or excise rules. The Commission is a statutory body corporate established by the Financial Services Commission Ordinance, 1989. They are co-funded by the European Commission and the Department for Business Innovation and Skills, and hosted by the Trading Standards Institute. The FSC can be accessed on http://www.fsc.gi/fsc/home.htm. Prior to Cypriot accession to the EU in 2004, although the United Kingdom was an EU member at the time, EU law did not apply to the sovereign base areas. Perhaps the newsagent now sells El País. Gibraltar has a special relationship with the European Community, which is different from any other overseas territory of a member state. The special territories divide themselves in three categories: 9 Outermost Regions (OMR) that form part of the European Union, though they benefit from derogations from some EU laws due to their geographical remoteness from mainland Europe, 13 Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) that do not form part of the European Union, though they cooperate with the EU via the Overseas Countries and Territories Association, and 10 special cases that form part of the European Union (with the exception of the Faroe Islands), though EU law make ad hoc provisions.  As with the French overseas departments, the euro is legal tender in Saint Martin, and it is outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.  The status may be obtained by any Finnish citizen legally resident in Åland for 5 years who can demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the Swedish language.. It consists of the Commissioner, as Chairman, and seven other persons, four of whom shall have relevant experience in the United Kingdom and three of whom shall have relevant experience in Gibraltar. The Brexit transition period will be over on January 1, and that means that Gibraltar, just like the United Kingdom, will be left out of the European Single Market. The German village of Büsingen am Hochrhein is an exclave entirely surrounded by Switzerland, and as such is, for practical purposes, in a customs union with the latter non-EU country. Between that date and 16 July 1976 Suriname had OCT status. After making huge investments and restructuring the relevant government departments, on 28 February 2013 for the first time ever Gibraltar is completely up to date in the transposition of all EU directives.  The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as outermost regions. The overseas countries and territories (OCT) are dependent territories that have a special relationship with one of the member states of the EU. The answer depends on … The Overseas Countries and Territories are recognised by the Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which allows them to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment, and invites them to join the Overseas Countries and Territories Association (OCTA) in order to improve cooperation with the European Union. Again this can be, according to Article 51(2)(b) limited. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions, European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community.  In October 2015, the review concluded the present legal structures for governance and integration with European Netherlands was not working well within the framework of WolBES, but no recommendations were made in regards of whether a switch from OCT to OMR status would help improve this situation.. Subscribe to POLITICO's newsletter Subscribe today Related Content. The UK ECC is part of the ECC-Net, they are a free and impartial service who offer advice and in some cases may be able to contact the trader on your behalf. Some territories of EFTA member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European microstates..  This protocol applies EU law relating to the Common Agricultural Policy, customs, indirect taxation, social policy and justice and home affairs to the sovereign base areas. The euro is legal tender; however, they are outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.  However, there are some derogations due to the islands' special status.  Mayotte, which was an OCT, joined the EU as an OMR with effect from 1 January 2014. When the Republic of Cyprus became part of the European Union on 1 May 2004, the northern third of the island was outside of the effective control of its government due to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, a United Nations buffer zone of varying width separated the two parts, and a further 3% of the island was taken up by UK sovereign bases (under British sovereignty since the Treaty of Establishment in 1960). Edit: Gibraltar has a special situation since it is self-governed with its own Parliament. They are part of the EU but they are excluded from the common agricultural and fisheries policies. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area. These countries are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, the member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).  Büsingen was also outside of the Schengen area until Switzerland joined on 12 December 2008. ), as amended up to September 2009, "Foreign Minister says Cyprus not to join Schengen before 2010", "Council directive on the common system of value added tax", "customs/common/glossary/customs/index en.htm Customs territory of the Community", "2002325EN.003301.html Treaty Establishing the European Community, part four", Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union § Article 355, "Information for Businesses/01 Customs and fiscal territories/index.jsp The customs and fiscal territories of the European Community", "0466en01.pdf Direct Trade Regulation proposal, not yet implemented", "Procedure File: 2006/2012(INI) - Legislative Observatory - European Parliament", "Agreement between the European Community, of the one part, and the Government of Denmark and the Home Government of the Faroe Islands", "Treaty of Lisbon, Article 2, points 287 and 293", "summaries/economic and monetary affairs/institutional and economic framework/l25042 en.htm Agreements concerning the French territorial communities". It was excluded from the EU customs area until the end of 2019.  However, Faroese people may become EU citizens by changing their residence to the Danish mainland. Gibraltar (/ dʒ ɪ ˈ b r ɔː l t ər / jih-BRAWL-tər, Spanish: [xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. The people of Gibraltar are predominantly of Spanish, Maltese and other Mediterranean descent, and are bilingual Spanish/English speakers, with English the language of business and Spanish otherwise dominant. Norway and Switzerland have special areas. The list was since then revised multiple times, and comprised—as noted by the Lisbon Treaty—25 OCTs in 2007. Gibraltar considers joining EU’s Schengen open borders area to ease damage from Brexit. The road from Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot. Since then it has been fully managed by Russian authorities, and is no longer part of the concession territory. Gibraltar, with a population of just under 30,000 inhabitants, is almost certainly the smallest jurisdiction in the EU with an obligation to transpose and implement EU directives.  Following the entry into force of the Convention on the association of the Netherlands Antilles with the European Economic Community on 1 October 1964, however, the Netherlands Antilles became OCTs. The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020 after having voted to leave in the 2016 referendum and formally notified the EU of its intention to withdraw in March 2017. According to Art.227 (EEC) and Art.198 (EURATOM) these Treaties shall not apply to those overseas countries and territories having special relations with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which are not listed in Annex IV to the EEC Treaty. 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